Friday, 29 December 2017

1911 Scunthorpe - a young town with more outsiders than the rest of the locality?

By a young town, I mean that the average age in the town is younger than the norm for the locality as young, adventurous people moved from the countryside to better paid jobs in ironstone, iron and steel. For outsiders, I had to make a few judgments - what is local and what isn't? I had to make some arbitrary decisions, so I've classified the data into four categories:


  1. Born in the parishes of Scunthorpe;
  2. Born in the rest of North Lincolnshire;
  3. Born in the rest of Lincolnshire;
  4. Born elsewhere.
Why the need for arbitrary decisions? Well, there was no way I was transcribing the whole of the locality: it had to be automated from data taken from family history sites. I had to make some call as to what is local and what isn't, and this is as good as anything. I could have taken the 1974 districts of Glanford and Scunthorpe, but then Keadby isn't local but Kirmington is. My way Scotter isn't local but Owston Ferry is, which probably isn't any better, but it is easier for people who don't know the political history of the area to understand. 

I chose Lincolnshire rather than "within 50 miles" for a slightly different reason. The automation is equally difficult, as many census entries lack a county. 1911 is the first census where people filled in their own forms, and we see Scunthorp, Crossby, Froddingham, etc. instead of Scunthorpe, Crosby, Frodingham. Sometimes with Lincolnshire, sometimes without. Or with Lincs, Linc, Lincoln, Linshire, and many others. I digress, but it should be clear that any automation is going to involve creating a huge list of acceptable places with large varieties of acceptable spellings.

So the reason for choosing Lincolnshire? The sense that people might have told their families "at least it's in the same county" as they left. The same reasoning that Scunthorpe United fans have for close rivalry with Grimsby and Lincoln rather than Doncaster and Hull. It may be relevant or not, and it's hard to prove in any case - but it makes the data easy to understand.

Now back to the age thing - if you have a larger percentage of younger people in an area, you will almost certainly have a larger percentage of children. So when you look at where the children were born, you see 'Scunthorpe' - which skews the data as to whether the family are local. Imagine a family of man, wife, four kids - man and wife born Doncaster, four kids born Scunthorpe. That gives two born elsewhere and four Scunthorpe, which isn't really what we need to measure if looking at who migrated coming to Scunthorpe and who was there beforehand. I therefore looked at only the people who were 18+ at the time.

Having collected the data, and defined a few rules for what constitutes a steel worker (contains the word "Mill" but neither "Miller" nor "Milliner", for instance), an ironstone miner, a farm worker and a domestic worker, I can classify workers as being in one of those categories or 'Other'. We don't need to be rocket scientists to believe that there would have been more iron and steel workers than ironstone workers in the parishes of Scunthorpe and that there are more farm workers elsewhere in the locality. However, the proximity of Ashby to Yarborough Mines at Ashby Ville meant that there were more ironstone workers than iron and steel workers in Ashby, which surprised me. Also, Scunthorpe has a much greater proportion of outsiders than Ashby. 

What constitutes the locality? Here I did choose Glanford and Scunthorpe simply due to the amount of work involved in the extract. Even to do this requires the processing of 68 enumeration districts. The family history sites, quite understandably, protect themselves against distributed denial of service attacks by only allowing a limited number of searches per minute. Unlike Google Maps, there is no application programming interface, so you have to simulate hitting every page of an enumeration district, storing the output, post processing into a spreadsheet, then checking that there aren't silly errors where an occupation is obviously in the wrong category or someone has invented another spelling of Scunthorpe. It takes time.

A few words of warning. The data might be slightly inaccurate for a few reasons:

1) I've assumed if someone writes just the word Ashby, that's Scunthorpe not Ashby de la Zouch. But if they've written Kirton or Kirton Lincolnshire, I don't know that it isn't Kirton near Boston, so that's Lincolnshire.

2) I have looked at transcriptions, not images. I rely on the transcriptions making sense even if spelt wrong. If they don't make sense, the occupation becomes 'Other' and the place of birth 'Elsewhere'. This may inflate those categories, but it isn't going to be by much. 

3) If the place of birth just says Lincolnshire, this could be Scunthorpe or North Lincs, but I assume it isn't as I think it likely that people would remember the name of somewhere local. This slightly inflates the county statistics, but it is really marginal.

Now one thing I have to say. I would dearly love to make the whole of the data I have collected available for download. However, that would only be allowed by permission of both the web site I've used to collect the data and The National Archives, so I can't do so. However, the metadata I've collected isn't available anywhere else, so I can publish that.

Tuesday, 20 January 2015

On Soane, St Pancras and links to the future

Many of you will remember my post on St Pancras. Something I read today made me want to start there again. In my role as a less posh, less erudite and far less photogenic Lucinda Lambton, I want to do a stroll through a few ephemera in London, which will probably be very tenuously linked.

Let me start from something familiar. Here's Alistair Langley's new station at St. Pancras:

Photo courtesy www.mimoa.eu

The idea, for those who are unfamiliar, is that domestic trains terminate in the new station, international trains in the old station. This keeps diesel fumes out of the restored train shed. However, the line is to be electrified by 2020. This had led to a comment on a blog to which I contribute suggesting that in order to cater for increased traffic, the new station should be increased from four platforms to six.

Now, this is not the audience for an argument as to why that might not work without six tracks to Luton. I'd like to look at an immediate counter-argument regarding St. Pancras cemetery. Let's not worry for the moment whether it is really in the way, but close to the new station is buried Sir John Soane in St Pancras Old Church. His is one of two Grade I monuments in London, the other being that of Karl Marx in Highgate Cemetery.

Photo courtesy Wikipedia, author David Edgar

Here's Comrade Karl, just in case you didn't know what Marx's monument looks like:

Photo courtesy Wikipedia

So let's establish a date for Soane's death - January 1837. Queen Victoria hadn't yet taken the throne. Yet when I look at Soane's monument I see this, designed 1926:

Photo courtesy Wikipedia, author Christoph Braun

So here we have the 'premonition' of the telephone box, 89 years before it was invented by Giles Gilbert Scott . Giles Gilbert Scott, who he? Well he's the grandson of George Gilbert Scott, the designer of St Pancras Station. Small world?

Sunday, 15 June 2014

Uckfield to Lewes - postscript

BACKGROUND

In 2008, Mott Macdonald published a report on the feasibility of reopening the line between Uckfield and Lewes. It dismayed many by putting forward a Benefit to Cost ratio of 0.78 - way too low for the project to proceed. What I intend to do here is to raise the possibility that the BCR calculation might actually be too low, and that the project might have a sufficient BCR to proceed.

COSTS

At the time of the report being published, I saw a number of complaints around the cost calculation. To refresh the mind of anyone who doesn't know, the principal line item civil engineering costs would be a new station at Uckfield, a new bridge over the railway in Uckfield town centre, and a bridge for the A22 Uckfield bypass over the railway. I have no substantial issue with the projected costs - I am aware of the risks of 'unknown unknowns' in a project such as this, and it's a good idea to plan for the worst then add 30% contingency to the budget, as this report does. I could quibble about the plan to retain the Lavender Line and not simply compensate them and tell them to move on, but the impact of people playing steam trains on the costs is negligible.

BENEFITS

Benefits are far harder to quantify than costs. In Central London, we'd need to quantify socio-economic benefits, but this is leafy East Sussex - so we're pretty much talking about how many people would shift their mode of transport from car, bus, horse, bike or foot to train. The principal reason for doing this is nothing to do with carbon footprint - it's simply that it's faster. In many rural areas the roads are quiet and the railway is slow and stops everywhere. The 17 miles of the A26 between Crowborough and Lewes is heavily congested in a morning - whereas the railway would take 22 minutes with two stops.

So let's look at Mott Macdonald's profile for new journeys on a London to Lewes via Uckfield route.


Uckfield
Lewes
383
Uckfield
Brighton
98
Uckfield
Eastbourne
53
Uckfield
Newhaven Town
33
Uckfield
Seaford
29
Crowborough
Lewes
84
Crowborough
Brighton
53
Crowborough
Eastbourne
31
Crowborough
Newhaven Town
19
Crowborough
Seaford
17
Buxted
Lewes
37
Buxted
Brighton
19
Buxted
Eastbourne
11
Buxted
Newhaven Town
6
Buxted
Seaford
6


Looking at yearly footfall statistics, the figures from Crowborough and Buxted look low relative to Uckfield:


Uckfield 
269084
Crowborough
203127
Buxted
87812

It looks reasonable that Uckfield's market could expand by 383 people per day going to Lewes by train. However, if we assume that the market to Lewes expands in line with Uckfield from each of Crowborough and Buxted, and we take account of the fact that Eridge station is just off the A26 and five miles from Tunbridge Wells - not an unreasonable assumption given the speed of journey and the congestion on the A26 - we see a very different picture:


Uckfield
Lewes
383
Uckfield
Brighton
98
Uckfield
Eastbourne
53
Uckfield
Newhaven Town
33
Uckfield
Seaford
29
Crowborough
Lewes
289
Crowborough
Brighton
53
Crowborough
Eastbourne
31
Crowborough
Newhaven Town
19
Crowborough
Seaford
17
Buxted
Lewes
125
Buxted
Brighton
19
Buxted
Eastbourne
11
Buxted
Newhaven Town
6
Buxted
Seaford
6
Eridge
Lewes
200
Eridge
Brighton
25
Eridge
Eastbourne
25
Eridge
Newhaven Town
10
Eridge
Seaford
10

I'm now going to make a very simplistic assumption about the single fare from Uckfield to Lewes: it's between the cost of Busted to Uckfield and Crowborough to Uckfield, and it's added to existing fares.

This gives the following revenue profile for Mott Macdonald's assumptions based on full single fares - it is only used for relative purposes to my own assumptions - the real values don't really matter:


From
To
People
Fare
Revenue
Uckfield
Lewes
383
£2.70
£1,034.10
Uckfield
Brighton
98
£6.80
£666.40
Uckfield
Eastbourne
53
£10.80
£572.40
Uckfield
Newhaven Town
33
£5.30
£174.90
Uckfield
Seaford
29
£5.30
£153.70
Crowborough
Lewes
84
£6.40
£537.60
Crowborough
Brighton
53
£14.50
£768.50
Crowborough
Eastbourne
31
£10.50
£325.50
Crowborough
Newhaven Town
19
£9.00
£171.00
Crowborough
Seaford
17
£9.00
£153.00
Buxted
Lewes
37
£4.50
£166.50
Buxted
Brighton
19
£8.60
£163.40
Buxted
Eastbourne
11
£12.60
£138.60
Buxted
Newhaven Town
6
£7.10
£42.60
Buxted
Seaford
6
£7.10
£42.60
Total Revenue
£5,110.80

And for my assumptions:


From
To
People
Fare
Revenue
Uckfield
Lewes
383
£2.70
£1,034.10
Uckfield
Brighton
98
£6.80
£666.40
Uckfield
Eastbourne
53
£10.80
£572.40
Uckfield
Newhaven Town
33
£5.30
£174.90
Uckfield
Seaford
29
£5.30
£153.70
Crowborough
Lewes
289
£6.40
£1,849.60
Crowborough
Brighton
53
£14.50
£768.50
Crowborough
Eastbourne
31
£10.50
£325.50
Crowborough
Newhaven Town
19
£9.00
£171.00
Crowborough
Seaford
17
£9.00
£153.00
Buxted
Lewes
125
£4.50
£562.50
Buxted
Brighton
19
£8.60
£163.40
Buxted
Eastbourne
11
£12.60
£138.60
Buxted
Newhaven Town
6
£7.10
£42.60
Buxted
Seaford
6
£7.10
£42.60
Eridge
Lewes
200
£7.50
£1,500.00
Eridge
Brighton
25
£11.60
£290.00
Eridge
Eastbourne
15
£15.60
£234.00
Eridge
Newhaven Town
10
£10.10
£101.00
Eridge
Seaford
10
£10.10
£101.00
Total Revenue
£8,943.80

As I said the actual totals don't matter - what's important is the ratio of the two figures, 8943.8/5110.8 - 1.75. Now let's look at the BCR.

BCR

The BCR calculation isn't that hard to understand - essentially as the revenues increase, the government loses fuel tax, but benefits such as clean air, time saving and congestion reduction come into play. For illustrative purposes I will assume that the impact on these factors is linear - this may well balance out in reality. The figures also include both local government and central government subsidy. Local government subsidy is zero on the Mott Macdonald study, and is calculated not to have any impact - unlike central government subsidy, also zero. I would argue that East Sussex should be lobbied to pay a similar percentage to Hertfordshire on the Croxley Link, say £23.5m at 2008 prices. The Mott Macdonald calculation looks like this, in thousands of pounds:


Local government funding (LGF)
0
Revenue (REV)
80433
Operating costs (OC)
-40272
Investment costs (IC)
-96465
Developer and other contributions
0
Central Government Funding (CGF)
0
Indirect Tax Revenues (ITF)
-5177
Present value of Costs (sum of above)
-61481
Time Savings
21644
Noise
181
Local Air Quality
272
Greenhouse Gases
572
Accidents
1113
Infrastructure
123
Congestion
6835
Present value of Benefits (BEN, sum of above)
30740
Net Present Value (costs + benefits)
-30741
BCR –(REV + BEN)/(OC + IC + CGF + ITF)
0.78

Applying the 1.75 ratio to the revenue and including the East Sussex contribution, we see:


Local government funding (LGF)
23500
Revenue (REV)
140757.75
Operating costs (OC)
-40272
Investment costs (IC)
-96465
Developer and other contributions
0
Central Government Funding (CGF)
0
Indirect Tax Revenues (ITF)
-5177
Present value of Costs (sum of above)
18461
Time Savings
37877
Noise
317
Local Air Quality
476
Greenhouse Gases
1001
Accidents
1948
Infrastructure
123
Congestion
11961
Present value of Benefits (BEN, sum above)
53795
Net Present Value (costs + benefits)
72256
BCR -(REV + BEN)/(OC + IC + CGF + ITF +LGF)
1.59

CONCLUSION

I'm an IT consultant, not a railway consultant, so there may well be flaws in my argument. However, I've made a couple of simple modifications and turned a scheme from a project which is not entertainable to one which needs further consideration. The congestion on the A26 is only going to get worse. Maybe it's time to reconsider Lewes-Uckfield?